The Khasi Hills District was divided into two districts, viz the East Khasi Hills District and the West Khasi Hills District on 28th October 1976. On June 4th, 1992, East Khasi Hills District was further divided into two administrative districts of East Khasi Hills District and Ri-Bhoi District.
Shillong is the district headquarter of East Khasi Hills District. The district consists of Eight Community and Rural Development blocks at present.
East Khasi Hills District forms a central part of Meghalaya and covers a total geographical area of 2,748 Sq. Kms. It lies approximately between 25°07” & 25°41” N Lat. And 91°21” & 92°09” E Long.
The northern portion of the district is bounded by the plain of Ri-Bhoi District gradually rising to the rolling grasslands of the Shillong plateau interspersed with river valleys, then falls sharply in the Southern portion forming a deep gorges and ravines in Mawsynram and Shella-Bholaganj, community and rural development block, bordering Bangladesh. The district is bounded by the Jaintia Hills District to the east and the West Khasi Hills District to the west.
The East Khasi Hills District is mostly hilly with deep gorges and ravines on the southern portion. The most important physiographic features of the district is the Shillong Plateau interspersed with river valley, then fall sharply in the southern portion forming deep gorges and ravine in Mawsynram and Shella-Bholaganj bordering Bangladesh. Shillong peak lying 10 Kms. from the city, offer a panoramic view of the scenic country side and is also the highest point in the district as well as in the State. In the evening , the city lights below appears like a star studded abyss.
The climate of the district ranges from temperate in the plateau region to the warmer tropical and sub-tropical pockets on the Northern and Southern regions. The whole of the district is influenced by the south-west monsoon which begins generally from May and continues till September. The weather is humid for the major portion of the year except for the relatively dry spell usually between December and March.
The headquarter of the district, Shillong which is also the capital city of State, is connected to Guwahati and Silchar by NH 44 of 103 Kms. and 240 Kms. respectively. The nearest Rail head and airport are situated at Guwahati. There is a airstrip suitable for small aircrafts at Umroi which is 35 Kms. from Shillong. The agricultural and other products are transported by trucks, jeeps and tractors. Shillong is well connected with other parts of the State by motorable road. Similarly, all the block headquarters in the district are also connected by roads. However, the villages in the interior areas are poorly connected and transport services are inadequate.